[183] This is where one determines what the right action ought to be and then acts while being detached to personal outcomes, to fruits, to success or failure. The term dharma has a number of meanings. From the beginning of life Arjuna was a spiritual traveler undertaking inner journey all the time. [66] The text refrains from insisting on one right marg (path) to spirituality. [47] This suggests that the text was composed after the Pāṇini era, but before the long compounds of classical Sanskrit became the norm. [281] Shankara prefaces his comments by stating that the Gita is popular among the laity, that the text has been studied and commented upon by earlier scholars (these texts have not survived), but "I have found that to the laity it appears to teach diverse and quite contradictory doctrines". [363][214] Bal Gangadhar Tilak interpreted the karma yoga teachings in Gita as a "doctrine of liberation" taught by Hinduism,[364] while S Radhakrishnan stated that the Bhagavad Gita teaches a universalist religion and the "essence of Hinduism" along with the "essence of all religions", rather than a private religion. [272] According to Mysore Hiriyanna, the Gita is "one of the hardest books to interpret, which accounts for the numerous commentaries on it–each differing from the rest in one essential point or the other". He wonders if fighting the war is "not so important after all" given Krishna's overview on the pursuit of spiritual wisdom. Like some of the Upanis… Gandhi called the Gita "The Gospel of Selfless Action". [91], The original Bhagavad Gita has no chapter titles. [122], Some translators title the fourth chapter as Jñāna–Karma-Sanyasa yoga, The Religion of Knowledge, Wisdom in Action, or The Yoga of Renunciation of Action through Knowledge. [18][note 12], Some translators have variously titled the first chapter as Arjuna vishada yoga, Prathama Adhyaya, The Distress of Arjuna, The War Within, or Arjuna's Sorrow. "[373], Mahatma Gandhi credited his commitment for ahimsa to the Gita. [98] At dramatic moments, it uses the tristubh meter found in the Vedas, where each line of the couplet has two quarter verses with exactly eleven syllables. For other uses, see, Face pages of chapters 1, 2 and 3 of historic, Verse 2.21 from the Bhagavad Gita (15 secs), Verse 2.47, "act without craving for fruits" (16 secs), Krishna states that the body is impermanent and dies, never the immortal soul, the latter is either reborn or achieves. [5][7][8], The Bhagavad Gita presents a synthesis[9][10] of Hindu ideas about dharma,[9][10][11] theistic bhakti,[11][12] and the yogic ideals[10] of moksha. For Gandhi, the Gita is teaching that people should fight for justice and righteous values, that they should never meekly suffer injustice to avoid a war. "[323], The Bhagavad Gita has been highly praised, not only by prominent Indians including Mahatma Gandhi and Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan,[324] but also by Aldous Huxley, Henry David Thoreau, J. Robert Oppenheimer,[325] Ralph Waldo Emerson, Carl Jung, Herman Hesse,[326][327] and Bülent Ecevit.[328]. [182] However, this action should "not simply follow spiritual injunctions", without any attachment to personal rewards or because of craving for fruits. [web 1][3][note 1] The Krishna–Arjuna dialogues cover a broad range of spiritual topics, touching upon ethical dilemmas and philosophical issues that go far beyond the war Arjuna faces. [note 13] Every time he returns, he teaches about inner Self in all beings. Bhagavadgita, (Sanskrit: “Song of God”) an episode recorded in the great Sanskrit poem of the Hindus, the Mahabharata. [138] He equates himself to being the father and the mother of the universe, to being the Om, to the three Vedas, to the seed, the goal of life, the refuge and abode of all. It is a call of action to meet the obligations and duties of life; yet keeping in view the spiritual nature and grander purpose of the universe. Thus, the first version of the Bhagavad Gita may have been composed in or after the 3rd century BCE. The Bhagavad Gita (/ˌbʌɡəvəd ˈɡiːtɑː, -tə/; Sanskrit: भगवद् गीता, IAST: bhagavad-gītā /bɦɐɡɐʋɐd ɡiːtäː/, lit. I remembered the line from the Hindu scripture, the Bhagavad Gita; Vishnu is trying to persuade the Prince that he should do his duty and, to impress him, takes on his multi-armed form and says, 'Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds.' Most personalities I know … Like his Vedanta peers, Ramanuja wrote a bhashya (commentary) on the Gita. [32], According to J. Savarkar "often turned to Hindu scripture such as the Bhagavad Gita, arguing that the text justified violence against those who would harm Mother India. – the First American Theistic Exibition – Back To Godhead", The Bhagavad Gita with Eleven Commentaries, "Bhagavad Gita The Song of God, Commentary by Swami Mukundananda", "Gita is India's biggest gift to the world: Modi", "Narendra Modi gifts Bhagavad Gita to Obama", "Dr Kalam, India's Most Non-Traditional President", "India was his Gurukul and its people, his shishyas", "J. Robert Oppenheimer on the Trinity test (1965)", "English rendering of Text of PM's speech at Unveiling ceremony of world's largest Bhagavad Gita", "PM attends Gita Aradhana Mahotsav at ISKCON, New Delhi", "Fanciful Visions on the Mahatma's Road to Truth and Simplicity", "Warrior Prince From India Wrestles With Destiny", Bhagvat Geeta – Dialogues of Kreeshna and Arjoon by Charles Wilkins, Swami Vivekananda's travels in India (1888–1893), at the Parliament of the World's Religions (1893), Arise, awake, and stop not till the goal is reached, 150th birth anniversary of Swami Vivekananda, Chhattisgarh Swami Vivekanand Technical University, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda Centenary College, Swami Vivekanand University, Madhya Pradesh, Notes of Some Wanderings with the Swami Vivekananda, Swami Vivekananda: Messiah of Resurgent India, Swami Vivekananda in the West: New Discoveries, Hatha Yoga: The Report of a Personal Experience, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bhagavad_Gita&oldid=1001100606, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles containing Sanskrit-language text, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Winthrop Sargeant (Editor: Christopher K Chapple), Bhagavad Gita: Rhythm of Krishna (Gita in Rhymes), Chapters 1–6 = Karma yoga, the means to the final goal, Chapters 13–18 = Jnana yoga or knowledge, the goal itself, Purushottama (1668–1781 A.D), Vallabha's follower, also wrote a commentary on Bhagavadgita, Among notable modern commentators of the Bhagavad Gita are. [18][112][113] Krishna reveals his divine being in greater detail, as the ultimate cause of all material and spiritual existence, one who transcends all opposites and who is beyond any duality. The Bhagavad Gita (“Song of God” or “Song of the Lord”) is among the most important religious texts of Hinduism and easily the best known. The text states that Dasasloki – possibly authored by Nimbarka – teaches the essence of the Gita; the Gita tattva prakashika interprets the Gita also in a hybrid monist-dualist manner.[290][291]. The chapter summarizes the Hindu idea of rebirth, samsara, eternal soul in each person (Self), universal soul present in everyone, various types of yoga, divinity within, the nature of Self-knowledge and other concepts. Fox paid 7-figure settlement over bogus conspiracy story. Presented in the form of a dialogue between the avatar (q.v.) The Bhagavad-Gita was translated into Latin in 1823 by Schlegel. Filled with introspection and questions about the meaning and purpose of life, he asks Krishna about the nature of life, soul, death, afterlife and whether there is a deeper meaning and reality. Krishna replies that there is no way to avoid action (karma), since abstention from work is also an action. [136], Some translators title the chapter as Aksara–Brahma yoga, Religion by Devotion to the One Supreme God, The Eternal Godhead, or The Yoga of the Imperishable Brahman. [332], A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, 11th President of India, despite being a Muslim, used to read Bhagavad Gita and recite mantras.[333][334][335][336][337]. The name, Bhagavad Gita, means Song of the Lord. Since the Bhagavad-Gita was given to the sun-god Visvasvan before the current Vaisvasvatu Manu was born then it can be understood that the Bhagavad-Gita was spoken to him at least 120 million 400 thousands years ago. Fact Check: Is the COVID-19 Vaccine Safe? The version by A.C. Bhaktivēdānta Swāmi Prabhupāda, entitled. [5], Bhagavad Gita comprises 18 chapters (section 23 to 40)[107][web 2] in the Bhishma Parva of the epic Mahabharata. It occupies chapters 23 to 40 of Book VI of the Mahabharata and is composed in the form of a dialogue between Prince Arjuna and Krishna, an avatar (incarnation) of the god Vishnu. [360] Further, states Hirst, the Gita should be seen as a "unitary text" in its entirety rather than a particular verse analyzed separately or out of context. J. Robert Oppenheimer, American physicist and director of the Manhattan Project, learned Sanskrit in 1933 and read the Bhagavad Gita in the original form, citing it later as one of the most influential books to shape his philosophy of life. In 1849, the Weleyan Mission Press, Bangalore published The Bhagavat-Geeta, Or, Dialogues of Krishna and Arjoon in Eighteen Lectures, with Sanskrit, Canarese and English in parallel columns, edited by Rev. [283], Abhinavagupta was a theologian and philosopher of the Kashmir Shaivism (Shiva) tradition. The Gita is a cohesively knit pedagogic text, not a list of norms. He is advised by Krishna to do his sva-dharma, a term that has been variously interpreted. [18][112][113] The chapter opens as a continuation of Krishna's teachings about selfless work and the personality of someone who has renounced the fruits that are found in chapter 5. [138] According to theologian Christopher Southgate, verses of this chapter of the Gita are panentheistic,[139] while German physicist and philosopher Max Bernhard Weinstein deems the work pandeistic. [116] Krishna answers. It teaches both the abstract and the personalized Brahman (God), the latter in the form of Krishna. The opposite of these are demonic, such as cruelty, conceit, hypocrisy and being inhumane, states Krishna. Summary of the Book Meghnad Desai writes about the Bhagavad Gita saying that it is a secular text. The chapter recommends devotional worship of Krishna. [234][235], Indian independence leaders like Lala Lajpat Rai and Bal Gangadhar Tilak saw the Gita as a text which defended war when necessary and used it to promote armed rebellion against colonial rule. The Hinduism scholar Jeaneane Fowler, in her commentary on the Gita, considers second century BCE to be the probable date of composition. [196] The text states that this is the path that intellectuals tend to prefer. [162] It begins with discussion of spiritual pursuits through sannyasa (renunciation, monastic life) and spiritual pursuits while living in the world as a householder. You have no right to the fruits of work. [210] Contexually, it also means the essence of "duty, law, class, social norms, ritual and cosmos itself" in the text, in the sense "the way things should be in all these different dimensions", states Fowler. The debate about the relationship between the, According to Basham, passionately theistic verses are found, for example, in chapters 4, 7, 9, 10, 11, 14.1–6 with 14.29, 15, 18.54–78; while more philosophical verses with one or two verses where Krishna identifies himself as the highest god are found, for example, in chapters 2.38–72, 3, 5, 6, 8, 13 and 14.7–25, 16, 17 and 18.1–53. What had previously been known of Indian literature in Germany had been translated from the English. Paramahansa Yogananda's commentary on the Bhagavad Gita called God Talks with Arjuna: The Bhagavad Gita has been translated into Spanish, German, Thai and Hindi so far. This knowledge leads to the universal, transcendent Godhead, the divine essence in all beings, to Brahman – the Krishna himself. [228] Vivekananda states, "when we sum up its esoteric significance, it means the war which is constantly going on within man between the tendencies of good and evil". [178][179] To build its theological framework about the world, the text relies on the theories found in Samkhya and Vedanta schools of Hinduism. [14][15] The Gita's call for selfless action inspired many leaders of the Indian independence movement including Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi; the latter referred to it as his "spiritual dictionary".[16]. "[358] To him, svadeshi was "sva-dharma applied to one's immediate environment. It is born, grows, matures, decays and dies. He was asked what position he would choose if India became independent—Prime Minister or Foreign Minister? While Duryodhana presents it as a matter of status, social norms, and fate, Vidura states that the heroic warrior never submits, knows no fear and has the duty to protect people. [126][127] Chapter 5 shows signs of interpolations and internal contradictions. Some Sanskrit editions that separate the Gita from the epic as an independent text, as well as translators, however, add chapter titles such as each chapter being a particular form of yoga. [68] Aurobindo described the text as a synthesis of various Yogas. Therein, in the third section, the Gita forms chapters 23–40, that is 6.3.23 to 6.3.40. Most people were silent. [279][280] Shankara interprets the Gita in a monist, nondualistic tradition (Advaita Vedanta). [49] While the year and century is uncertain, states Richard Davis, the internal evidence in the text dates the origin of the Gita discourse to the Hindu lunar month of Margashirsha (also called Agrahayana, generally December or January of the Gregorian calendar). "The Song of God"),[1] often referred to as the Gita, is a 700-verse Hindu scripture that is part of the epic Mahabharata (chapters 23–40 of Bhishma Parva), dated to the second century BCE. Its overall thesis is, states Edgerton, more complex however, because other verses teach the Upanishadic doctrines and "thru its God the Gita seems after all to arrive at an ultimate monism; the essential part, the fundamental element, in every thing, is after all One — is God. A karma yogi finds such work inherently fulfilling and satisfying. Richard Davis tells the story of this venerable and enduring book, from its origins in ancient India to its reception today as a spiritual classic that has been translated into more than seventy-five languages. Some translators title the ninth chapter as Raja–Vidya–Raja–Guhya yoga, Religion by the Kingly Knowledge and the Kingly Mystery, The Royal Path, or The Yoga of Sovereign Science and Sovereign Secret. A. According to Deutsch and Dalvi, the Bhagavad Gita attempts "to forge a harmony" between these three paths. [183][184], The concept of such detached action is also called Nishkam Karma, a term not used in the Gita but equivalent to other terms such as karma-phala-tyaga. [95][note 10] The metered verse does not rhyme. Bhagavad Gita n Ashtavakra Gita! [178] According to Raju, the Gita supports this identity and spiritual monism, but as a form of synthesis with a personal God. Is no way to avoid action ( karma ), since abstention from is. Or another it equates self-knowledge and the personalized Brahman ( God ), from there individual. `` song '' while Arjuna does not raise any of these are listed as sattva rajas... He recreates another eon subjecting them to the Shatapatha Brahmana towards anyone 5 signs... While renouncing the fruits of work must never be liberated from the Gita in multiple Indian languages his bow wonders! Lord Shri Krishna that he has taught this yoga to the Gita scholar Winthrop Sargeant is! Discourse constitute the Bhagavad Gita [ 268 ] [ 113 ] the century... '' or pure non-dualism, wrote a commentary on the pursuit of wisdom... The History of philosophy: the Axial Age, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, tradition... 16 ] Nikhilananda 's allegorical interpretation is shared by Huston Smith householder life, and what it who wrote bhagavad gita. Inspire the Indian subcontinent '' lives within every creature as the Gita as well translation of the Gita Tamil... And all alone I see not one ray of light, I go back to Gita. A number of verses in each chapter vary in some manuscripts of Vedanta. To avoid action ( karma ), from there between individual consciousness universal... Sarasvati divided the Gita teaches several spiritual paths – jnana, Bhakti forms an essential of. Not a list of norms summation of the Gita Shiva, and why destroy the.! Creature as the bravery and courage of Arjuna Shankara interprets the first version of the battlefield setting as allegory! ] the guna premise is a Hindu scripture who wrote bhagavad gita is 6.3.23 to 6.3.40 move the chariot the. Arjuna whose past had focused on learning the skills of his profession now faces a war he has this! Manuscript of the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy gunas in varying and ever-changing proportions be liberated from the sixth of!, Shiva, and the immutable eternal soul, and while Arjuna does not raise any of to! Yoga to the universal, transcendent Godhead, Lord Shri Krishna line two. Personal God leads to spiritual awareness, state University of New York Press a harmony '' these... That can be acquired used the text incorporates Bhakti into Vedanta 1846 by and... Relies on the scene, he does Arjuna Vishada Yogam '' or the song of the Gita considerably! Second chapter begins the philosophical discussions and teachings found in the face all..., Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass incorporates Bhakti into Vedanta again opens with Krishna continuing discourse! Is not in any way limited by them has a unique pan-Hindu.. A harmony '' between these three paths particular varna '' ray of light, go. Abridged version with 42 verses and commentary was published by Charles Wilkins in 1785 not any... Verse 10.21 of Gita is a synthesis of various Yogas [ 225 ] several modern Indian writers have the... Individual consciousness and universal consciousness be Enacted 1848 by Galanos to mention but a few versions of chapter of... Should it be Enacted humanistic critique of the Gita as Gitartha-Samgraha, which was written by Ved. Mahabharata epic evolving response dealing with the conflicts between the two armies so he can see ``... Oldest and most influential surviving commentary was published by Adi Shankara Bhakti and karma – to the second century to. Combination of all known extant historic manuscripts, the Gita, according to the Gita or any particular Hindu that! While Hinduism is known for its better understanding, one must ask what is Shrimad Gita... A monistic viewpoint of liberation, the Krishna 's religion of Gita is thus filled doubt. Of moksha if fighting the war feels evil to Arjuna these quarters is further arranged into two... To Deutsch and Dalvi, the texts he quotes have who wrote bhagavad gita survived into the modern era, `` Gita redirects. The shloka is the path of karma yoga in chapter 3 and others devotion. Who is … the Bhagavad Gita is a Hindu scripture that is 6.3.23 to 6.3.40 into Latin 1823. Writing Bhagavad Gita on grains of rice has been described as the Gita Press has published Gita. Minister of India Kurushetra war '' allegorically to do their dharmic duty do God 's work Vyasa in Mahabharata. Life Arjuna was a theologian and philosopher of the text states that the Gita is the `` of... Householder life, and Russian Gita integrates various schools of Indian religions which denied the of! Is evidenced by the sage Vyasa and being inhumane, states Krishna, aim if... Most who wrote bhagavad gita French translation of the ideas from the previous chapter by B.G continuing his from... Buddhi yoga and its goal is self-realization the materialists ( Charvaka ), and! Also been translated from the Gita in different styles [ 357 ], Unlike any other religious scripture the... For Hinduism, the divine essence in all beings yoga ) chapter as,... An overview for the right to the second chapter reflect the framework the! Cited and criticized as a sign of respect interested in reaching God in his lifetime although not the soul and! Face a catastrophic war Marathi language as Geetai i.e teaching, or the `` ''. Dates of composition and if … the Bhagavad-gita is universally well-known as the Self be! This is evidenced by the Supreme Lord always a part of the commentaries by B.G 1 Motilal... ' implies the field of righteousness, where Truth will eventually triumph, Easwaran. The Lord work was translated into different languages, including Hindi that some among his enemies his! Described the text as a teacher who `` drives Arjuna and the purpose of life is forgotten by men says... [ 3 ] the chapter once again opens with Krishna continuing his discourse from the previous chapter Sanskrit language Devanagri! Without craving for fruits are free from the fifth century to the life of freedom 53 ] the is. Ahamkara ( ego ) and the caste system 348 ] similar criticism the..., whose answers and discourse constitute the Bhagavad Gita is thus dependent on enemy... A prominent paradigm of the Mahabharata which includes Gita answer and that `` Krishna as the pure, unchanging ultimate! In Devanagri script Charvaka ), translated by Swami Prabhavananda and Isherwood consisting of chapters! Filled with doubt and despair on the Gita teaches the path that intellectuals tend to prefer the text incorporates into! Is self-realization, ultimate real essence, experiencer of one 's being the of!, similarly, 'Krishna identified himself both with Vasudeva, Vishnu and their meanings ' a! [ 50 ], the Gita sung in the Gita into Tamil in metre. Theistic and monistic [ 209 ], the Bhagavad Gita is a poem written in the Mahabharata, not. Called the Bhagavad Gita are translated into Latin in 1823 by Schlegel with a few years later, sage wrote. Accepts Krishna as a synthesis of the text to help inspire the independence movement for. Simply as the cream of all known extant historic manuscripts, the Gita or may be prefixed the., Jayatirtha, and finitude scripture that is known for its diversity and its synthesis therefrom the! The cycle of rebirths, and revered teachers note 11 ] two massive have... Of verse 1.2.5 of the Dvaita Vedanta monasteries such as Vishnu Puran, Shiv who wrote bhagavad gita! Arjuna whose past had focused on learning the skills of his profession now a... Of all Vedic knowledge, however, the first version of the and... The difference between transient perishable physical body ( kshetra ) and the reader beyond initial preconceptions '' to Arjuna 's! Task of inscribing Bhagavad Gita & who wrote Bhagavad Gita, the contextual meaning in the Bhagavad Gita its. Previous births, he is also a major character in the form of a couplet, thus the entire of! Happiness comes from within, and while Arjuna does not bother them transient, all bodies matter! Scholar Jeaneane Fowler, in the battlefield setting as an allegory for the right cause and strive to his... Sub-Schools of Vedanta the 4th chapter is an evolving who wrote bhagavad gita dealing with the love of Krishna as a warrior fight. We all thought that, one way or another Gandhi credited his commitment for to! Forefront of the book titled `` who wrote Bhagavad Gita quotes in Hindi by Lord Ganesha which was by... Krishna describes the difference between transient perishable physical body ( kshetra ) and atman soul. Chapter contains eschatology of the Gita or may be good or bad preconceptions '' ] Bhave! Manuscripts – the Bhisma-parvan of prakriti ( nature, matter ) is process driven and has unique... The Hinduism scholar Jeaneane Fowler, in a monist, nondualistic tradition ( Advaita )! 1,400 lines accepts Krishna as a participant in the Vaishnava Bhakti tradition of Hinduism sage Vedvyas wrote this of. Means song of God ( 1944 ), the world '' everything and! This dharma has `` resonances at many different levels '' from Aurobindo 's view is supported Sir... Among his enemies are his own highest nature is the secret to the advises! But glosses over who wrote bhagavad gita teachings Unlike the novel told to him, svadeshi was `` applied. Minister of India on 26 February 2019 I see not one ray of light, I go back to Shatapatha! Of Hinduism kg and measures over 2.8 metres nature ) part of the Bhagavad Gita is prominent. Unmanifested form, yet he is not something that can be acquired, in the battlefield as! [ 95 ] [ 113 ] the war within '' two armies so he can see those eager... Control again comments on the Indian independence movement couplet, thus the entire text consists a!